Wildlife in Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park inhabits more than forty species of mammals of which 15 belong to schedule I of Wildlife Protection Act 1972. It shelters the world’s largest population of Indian Rhinoceros and Asiatic Wild Buffalo and gives optimal habitat for big cat Tiger to maintain highest ecological balance.
The park area is bestowed with high species diversity in the terai duar savanna and grasslands with vast stretch of all elephant grass and marshland. Interestingly, royal Bengal tiger, one horned rhinoceros, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo and Indian bison are collectively known as Big Five of Kaziranga National Park.
One Horned Rhinoceros (2413)
Kaziranga National Park hosts two-thirds of the world’s population of rhino. According to the census held in the year 2018 which was conducted in the association with the forest department of the government of Assam and some recognized wildlife NGOs; recorded 2413 rhinos. It includes 1641 adult rhinos (642 males, 793 females, 206 unsexed); 387 sub-adults (116 males, 149 females, 122 unsexed); and 385 calves.
Indian Elephant (1940)
Great Indian Elephant is the largest mammals in India divided into adult males and herd-adults (comprising adult females and sub-adults), Based on social structure. Based on elephant movement, the study estimated that a total of 908 herd-adults, 228 adult males and 610 juvenile and young comprise the population of elephants found both within Kaziranga National Park, as well as adjoining habitats.
Royal Bengal Tiger (118)
Kaziranga is one of the few wild breeding areas outside Africa for multiple species of large cats, such as Bengal tigers and leopards. Kaziranga was declared a Tiger Reserve in the year 2006 and has the highest density of tigers in the world (1 per 5 km2), with a population of 118, according to the latest census.
Wild Water Buffalo (1666)
Wild Buffalo is listed among the endangered species and is favorite prey for tigers. They are also called Asiatic Buffalo and they are large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Kaziranga national park boasts of giving the highest population of Asiatic water buffalo anywhere in the world.
Swamp Deer/ Barahsingha (468)
Swamp deer found in Kaziranga National Park is basically a large deer species with a height of 130cm weighing up to 180 kg. The color of the swamp deer is dense brown coat. This coat also helps to protect and keep it warm and dry in the moist weather conditions. The female swamp deer have a paler color than males and has a manned neck.
Numerous water bodies constitute rich reservoir of food and thousands of migratory birds representing over hundred species visit the parks seasonally during winter from as far as Siberia. A total of 478 species has been recorded (M.Barua and P.Sharma, 1999) including 25 globally threatened species and 21 near threatened species. The globally threatened species recorded in Kaziranga National Park are Swamp Francolin (Francolinus gularis), Lesser White fronted Goose(Ansererythropus), Ferruginous Pochard (Aythya nyroca), Baer’s Pochard(A. baeri), Blyth’s Kingfisher(Alcedo hercules), Pale capped Pigeon(Columba punicea),Bengal Florican(Houbaropsis bengalensis), Nordmann’s Greenshank(Tringa guttifer).